Ten states in the US have banned affirmative action: California (1996), Texas (1996), Washington (1998), Florida (1999), Michigan (2006), Nebraska (2008), Arizona (2010), New Hampshire (2012), Oklahoma (2012), and Idaho (2020). 1961. In the U.S. affirmative action's original purpose was to pressure institutions into compliance with the nondiscrimination mandate of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. :72, Lyndon B. Johnson, the Texan Democrat and Senate Majority Leader from 1955–1961, began to consider running for high office, and in doing so showed how his racial views differed from those held by many White Americans in the traditional South. This is the first time in history that employers have been required to report information regarding compensation by gender and minority status to the federal equal employment agencies. The Court held that the generalization of "underrepresented minorities" failed the narrow tailoring requirement that strict scrutiny imposes. The Supreme Court (5-4) upheld the University of Michigan Law School's policy, ruling that race can be one of many factors considered by colleges when selecting their students because it furthers "a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body."  During this time period it was not uncommon for employers to blacklist or fire employees associated with unions. , South African jurist Martin van Staden argues that the way affirmative action and transformation policies have been implemented in South Africa has eroded state institutions, grown corruption, and undermined the rule of law in the country.
Policy: issues & actors, 20(4)", Graduate Student Admission Ordainment – Ministry of Education, PRC, "Ethnic and Religious Affairs Commission of Guangdong Province", http://che.org.il/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/%D7%94%D7%97%D7%9C%D7%98%D7%AA-%D7%95%D7%AA%D7%AA-%D7%9E%D7%A1-1-%D7%AA%D7%A9%D7%A2%D7%93.pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economically_Weaker_Section, "777 Putra Asli Papua Lolos Program Beasiswa ADIK dan ADEM", "Afirmasi Pendidikan Tinggi – Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia", "Seleksi CPNS KKP 2019-2020: Ada Kekhususan Bagi Orang Papua", "OAP calon siswa Bintara Noken di Papua capai 2.407 orang", "Gercin Minta Kapolri Akomodir OAP Masuk Akpol | Papua Today", "Siswa SMA Penerima Beasiswa Memilih Pulang ke Papua", "Prabowo Disebut Bakal Perbanyak Prajurit TNI Asal Papua", http://web.usm.my/km/KM%2021,2003/21-i.pdf, http://www.ecineq.org/ecineq_paris19/papers_EcineqPSE/paper_406.pdf, "Encyclopedia of the Nations, "Malaysia Poverty and Wealth, "Did the British Divide & Rule Ceylon? The report called for an end to "all discrimination and segregation based on race, color, creed, or national origins in…all branches of the Armed Services.
, These laws cause disproportionally high costs for small companies and reduce economic growth and employment. An interview with Professor Randall Kennedy about the presidency of Barack Obama and affirmative action, Substantive Equality, Positive Action and Roma Rights in the European Union, Affirmative Action on Campus Does More Harm than Good, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Affirmative_action&oldid=983987813, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2020, Wikipedia articles with style issues from May 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with limited geographic scope from May 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 October 2020, at 13:48. The justice minister said that the decision left no room for uncertainty.. :72 Through this order, all federal funds, such as "grants, loans, unions and employers who accepted taxpayer funds, and other forms of financial assistance to state and local governments," were forced to comply to the government's policies on affirmative action in employment practices. The committee was disturbed by the state of race relations, and included the evacuation of Americans of Japanese descent during the war "made without a trial or any sort of hearing…Fundamental to our whole system of law is the belief that guilt is personal and not a matter of heredity or association." If only considering directors with at least three directorships, 61.4% of them are women.
Businesses receiving federal funds were prohibited from using aptitude tests and other criteria that tended to … The administration was "not demanding any special preference or treatment or quotas for minorities" but was rather "advocating racially neutral hiring to end job discrimination". The equality section of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms explicitly permits affirmative action type legislation, although the Charter does not require legislation that gives preferential treatment. Affirmative Action was a legislative process that was established with the hopes of providing equal opportunity to minorities. According to her, the ruling New Patriotic Party (NPP) will see to the passing of the Bill if they win the December polls.  A reanalysis of multiple scholarly studies, especially in Asia, considered the impact of four primary factors on support for affirmative action programs for women: gender; political factors; psychological factors; and social structure. (34 CFR § 100.3(6)(ii)).
 Alternatively, some colleges use financial criteria to attract racial groups that have typically been under-represented and typically have lower living conditions.  However, a slight majority of Americans do believe that affirmative action goes beyond ensuring access and goes into the realm of preferential treatment.  Further impetus is a desire to ensure public institutions, such as universities, hospitals, and police forces, are more representative of the populations they serve. Some states specifically prohibit affirmative action, such as California (Proposition 209), Washington (Initiative 200), Michigan (Michigan Civil Rights Initiative), and Nebraska (Nebraska Civil Rights Initiative). Opponents argue that these policies amount to discrimination against other minorities, such as Asian Americans, which entails favoring one group over another based upon racial preference rather than achievement, and many believe that the diversity of current American society suggests that affirmative action policies succeeded and are no longer required. Some provinces and territories also have affirmative action-type policies. Affirmative action as a practice was partially upheld by the Supreme Court in Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), while the use of racial quotas for college admissions was concurrently ruled unconstitutional by the Court in Gratz v. Bollinger (2003). Civil rights guarantees that came through the interpretation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment affirmed the civil rights of people of color. Prabowo Subianto, Indonesian defense minister, has expressed that he will direct more effort towards recruiting Papuans to the Indonesian National Armed Forces.